The Australian government is now threatening to take Japan to the International Court of Justice because of its whale hunting. This follows ferocious clashes between Japanese whalers and an anti-whaling protestor, the Sea Shepherd Society, and strong criticism by the environmental movement in Australia (supported by New Zealand, EU and US). Every year, Japan's whale hunt seems to attract more and more of the world's attention.
But why does Japan persist with this? Since the moratorium on whale hunting under the International Whaling Commission, Japan has continued to conduct whaling under the auspices of its whaling research programe. But everyone knows that this is a sham. It is angering many members of the international community. And very few Japanese actually eat whale meat. In recent article, Midori Kagawa-Fox unlocks the political mystery of Japan's whale hunting.
We must acknowledge that the Japanese people have a long tradition of eating whale. In prehistoric times, whale meat was eaten when dead whales were washed ashore. Way back in the 12th century, Japanese historical records show that whales were then caught by hand harpoon. A whale industry even appeared to develop in the 17th century -- Japan's first lighthouse was built at Tomyo Misaki in 1636. And by the 19th century, it had become a mature industry as harpoon guns were mounted on on steam-powered whaling ships.
After the second World War, the American encouraged the food-short Japanese to go back to whale hunting. And by the 1960s, Japan was eating more whale meat than any other time of meat. In the 1970s, however, whale numbers started declining. And then opposition to commercial whaling became strong as the environmental movement became concerned about the effects on the marine eco-system of over-harvesting of whales.
In 1987, Japan accepted the International Whaling Commission's moratorium on commercial whaling, but retained the right to conduct whaling for scientific research purposes. Japan usually aims to catch 1000 whales each year in the Antarctic waters. Everyone knows that this research whaling is a cover for commercial whaling. The research has not produced any worthwhile results. It could be undertaken with a much lower whale catch, and according to some scientists, even without catching whales at all. Protestors are now becoming more aggressive in their attacks on the Japanese whalers. And the environmental movement in Australia and other countries is determined to stop this whaling.
To understand why Japan persists with whaling, Midori Kagawa-Fox argues that you need to analyse the behaviour of Japan's "whaling triangle", a triad of Japan's ruling elite. These vested interests receive direct financial benefits from Japan's whaling policy.
This is just one variant of the Japanese "Iron Triangle" that has governed Japan since the World War 2. Bureaucrats, politicians and industry get together behind closed doors to put together deals and policies to run the country. The Japanese people accepted this system for a long time, as it delivered economic growth and jobs for several decades. But, this model ran out of steam two decades ago when Japan's bubble burst. Reviving the economy through government spending did not work, and only landed the country with massive public debt, the highest of all the OECD countries. This is why the Japanese people eventually threw the long-serving Liberal Democratic Party out of office last August.
But Japan's "Whaling Triangle" may survive much longer. It is able to present itself as a defender of Japan's unique traditions, against a hostile outside world of Japan bashers.
So, who are the members of this "Whaling Triangle"?
First, there is the Whaling Section of the Fisheries Agency within the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. It runs Japan's whaling policy, administering the big subsidies that keep the policy running. It also promotes whale consumption through marketing campaigns, and school and hospital meals -- consumption of whale meat has not however been increasing. It provides Official Development Assistance to pro-whaling Caribbean countries, and supports their membership of the International Whaling Commission. Its ambition is to restore commercial whaling. JFA is a powerful government body, as the sea supplies about 40 per cent of the Japanese diet.
Second, there is the Institute of Cetacean Research which is responsible for Japan's whaling research. It runs the whaling expeditions, and sells the whale meat. Thanks to the proceeds from whale meat sales and also government subsidies, it makes massive profits.
Third, there is the Japan Fisheries Association which is a lobby group for the whole fishing industry which again benefits greatly from subsidies to undertake whaling. It plays a very iimportant role in determining whaling policy through its close connections with the Fiaheries Agency. It also receives massive payments (16 billion yen in 2007-08) from the Fisheries Agency for projects like the promotion, preservation and support of the fishing industry.
This triangle is held together in typical Japanese fashion. Upon retirement, senior bureaucrats from the Fisheries Agency land jobs (parachuting or ämakudari") in the Japan Fisheries Association, exploiting the benefits from their cosy relationship. From this position, they are in a position to negotiate a continuation of subsidies from their former subordinates, who have now been promoted into their previous positions.
It is also held together by a discourse which justifies "whale cheating" on the basis of Japan's unique cultural traditions. And the media is also complicit in this, as it will never present all sides of the issue.
People I meet will explain to me that such-and-such a whale is no longer threatened with extinction, or is even now in over abundance. How do they know? How can they judge? Also, the fact that the international debate is led by NGOs does not help its credibility in Japanese eyes. The Japanese people still have a very immature democracy with very little open debate by a rich and diverse civil society.
As its public debt is rising to 200 per cent of GDP, the Japanese government is looking for expenditure savings. There would be no better expenditure to cut that whaling subsidies.
Kagawa-Fox, Midori, "Japan's Whaling Triangle -- The Power Behind the Whaling Policy". Japanese Studies, Volume 29, Number 3, December 2009, pages 401-414.
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